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Term Definition

A physician who specializes in hormone disorders.

endomyocardial biopsy

the technical name for a heart biopsy; a test in which small tissue samples are removed from your heart and analyzed under a microscope for signs of damage; perfomed after a heart transplant to monitor if your body is rejecting the donor heart; may be used to check for the cause of heart muscle disease after standard tests have failed to find the cause

Endothelial dysfunction

A condition where the lining of the arteries are damaged and do not function properly. This can lead to restricted blood flow to the heart.


The lining of blood vessels and body cavities.


"within the blood vessel") endovascular procedures such as angiography, stenting, and coiling go through the arteries to access the brain or the heart to diagnose or treat blood vessel disease

endovascular aneurysm repair

an alternative to surgical aneurysm repair to treat an aortic aneurysm; a fabric tube with a wire mesh skeleton is implanted through the blood vessels to strengthen the aortic wall from the inside

Endovascular coiling

a procedure in which miniature metal coils at the end of a catheter are packed into an aneurysm that is at risk of bursting, or one that has already burst and caused a bleeding (hemorrhagic) stroke


A kind of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction or process.


A stimulant formerly used in diet medication, now banned by the FDA. Other names for ephedra include ma huag, sida cordifolia, and pinellia.


A hormone produced by the adrenal glands that increases heart rate and blood pressure by narrowing the blood vessels, often during stressful situations. Also known as adrenaline.


A blood cell that delivers oxygen to tissues and removes carbon dioxide and other wastes. Also known as red blood cells, red cells, or red corpuscles.


The female sex hormone produced by the ovaries that is essential for reproduction. The ovaries stop producing it after menopause and a lack of natural estrogen is thought to make older women more vulnerable to heart disease. See also Hormone replacement therapy.

Estrogen-progestin hormone therapy (EPT)

combined hormone therapy; the most common type of hormone therapy

exercise ankle-brachial index (ABI)

a test that compares blood pressure in your arms to that in your legs before and after exercise; can diagnose peripheral artery disease in women who have symptoms during exercise, but a normal ABI measurement at rest

Exercise stress test

a test that measures your heart's ability to function when it is working hard (or stressed); if you are not able to exercise you may have a pharmacological stress test that uses medication to stress your heart; see also Stress Test and exercise ankle-brachial index

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